Womens studies reflection paper

Member of boards of various international institutions. Kennedy School of Government.

Womens studies reflection paper

Chinese Australian families and the legacies of colonial naturalisation Sophie Couchman: Sophie spoke about the disconnect between World War I enlistment regulations and practice in relation to Chinese Australians, while Emma spoke about press reports of marital denaturalisation in Australian newspapers from the s to s.

Abstract In the Australian colonies came together to implement uniform laws to restrict Chinese immigration, leading eventually to the enactment of the Immigration Restriction Act after Federation in Alongside immigration restriction, after four Australian colonies also prohibited Chinese naturalisation, by law in New South Wales and by policy in Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia.

The federal Naturalisation Act of similarly prohibited Chinese naturalisation. Before these restrictions were introduced, however, thousands of Chinese men in Australia became British subjects through naturalisation, nearly in New South Wales alone.

In this paper I consider Womens studies reflection paper legacies of colonial naturalisation in the lives of Chinese migrants and their families in the s and after Federation, particularly concerning mobility and residency rights.

I argue that it is through the stories of individual lives, revealed in the press and in government case files, that we can best understand the ways that naturalised Chinese Australians and their children contested discrimination and asserted their rights as citizens. Fourteen-year-old Matilda, together with her Womens studies reflection paper younger siblings aged thirteen, ten and eight, were travelling to the small town of Gerogery, north of Albury, to visit their married sister Rose.

On arriving by train at Albury, however, the Ah Ket children were prevented from crossing the border by the Sub-Collector of Customs. Because they did not hold naturalisation papers.

The Sub-Collector was unconvinced, and so sent them back home to Victoria by the same train. It has been determined that for the peace and prosperity of the colony, Chinese immigration shall be restricted.

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But here were no aliens, but the most peaceful and defenceless of Australians — of like speech, education, religion and affections. This Act, and others introduced around the Australasian colonies, were the result of growing concerns over Chinese immigration.

Educated at Melbourne University and admitted to the bar inAh Ket had a distinguished legal career in which he actively campaigned for the rights of Chinese in Australia. He appeared before the High Court, represented Australian Chinese at the opening of the first Chinese parliament in Peking inand was Acting Consul for China in Australia in — and He was also a husband and father to two daughters and two sons.

This paper considers nationality, naturalisation and colonial mobility through the lens of Chinese Australian families like the Ah Kets. Yet, the fact that they were turned back illustrates the ambiguity with which immigration restriction laws were applied to native-born and naturalised Chinese British subjects in Australia and New Zealand.

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Prohibition of Chinese naturalisation formed part of the anti-Chinese policies introduced in four Australian colonies New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia from the s, and then in the Commonwealth of Australia from and the Dominion of New Zealand from Before these prohibitions, however, thousands of Chinese men in Australia and New Zealand became British subjects through naturalisation, nearly in New South Wales alone.

In this paper then I want to think about the legacies of this earlier history of colonial naturalisation in the lives of Chinese settlers and their families in the s and after Federation, particularly concerning mobility and residency rights.

I will argue that it is through the stories of individual lives, revealed in the press and in government case files, that we can best understand the ways that naturalised Chinese Australians and their children contested discrimination and asserted their rights as citizens.

Naturalisation and Chinese restriction The first anti-Chinese legislation was introduced in Australia in in Victoria, followed by a similar Act in South Australia in New South Wales then followed suit in With tonnage restrictions and a poll tax on each Chinese arrival, this legislation was effective in reducing the Chinese population in the colonies, and so, having served its purpose, it was repealed: Between then andthere was no restrictive legislation against Chinese immigration — except in Queensland, which introduced a Chinese Immigration Restriction Act in Inhowever, new and more consistent legislation was introduced across the colonies after the —81 intercolonial conferences.

This legislation was then tightened following the Intercolonial Conference on the Chinese Question in mid Laws varied slightly across the seven colonies, but they generally had tonnage restrictions and some a poll tax to limit the number of Chinese migrants.

They also included various exemptions, for residents and British subjects.

Womens studies reflection paper

Each colony exempted Chinese naturalised in that colony, while the NSW Act also explicitly exempted British subjects by birth. After Federation, the Australian colonial laws were repealed, although not immediately — in New South Wales, for example, the poll tax remained in place until The new federal Immigration Restriction Act, which came into force from the beginning ofprovided exemptions for those who had formerly been domiciled in the Commonwealth or in any colony which had become a state s 3n.

Australian birth and naturalisation certificates could be used as proof of this domicile, although exemption certificates were also issued. As mentioned, prohibition of Chinese naturalisation also formed part of the anti-Chinese measures introduced in Australia and New Zealand.

New South Wales was the only colony that prohibited Chinese naturalisation by law and it did so twice, in repealed in and again in Three other colonies Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia stopped naturalising Chinese afterwhile Tasmania and Queensland continued until the federal Naturalization Act came into force in In New Zealand, Chinese were naturalised until ; and it was stopped after the NZ Cabinet decided in February to decline naturalisation applications of Chinese from them on.

Colonial Chinese naturalisation The numbers of Chinese who became naturalised in each colony varied greatly, from about 20 in Western Australia up to nearly in Victoria.

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This is the paper I presented at the Australian Historical Association conference, ‘The Scale of History’, held at the Australian National University on 2–6 July Anti Aging Facial Skin Care Homemade Anti Aging Eye Serum Rejuvenation Spa Prince Frederick Md.

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