However, the reality may well be that, just like their supervisors, doctoral researchers are writing several things at once.
Prewriting Strategies Pre-writing strategies use writing to generate and clarify ideas. While many writers have traditionally created outlines before beginning writing, there are other possible prewriting activities. Five useful strategies are brainstormingclusteringfree writingloopingand asking the six journalists' questions Brainstorming Brainstorming, also called listing, is a process of generating a lot of information within a short time by building on the association of previous terms you looping in academic writing mentioned.
Jot down all the possible terms that emerge from the general topic you are thinking about. This procedure works especially well if you work in a team. All team members can generate ideas, with one member acting as scribe.
Don't worry about editing or throwing out what might not be a good idea. Simply write down a lot of possibilities. Group the items that you have listed according to arrangements that make sense to you. Give each group a label.
Now you have a topic with possible points of development. Write a sentence about the label you have given the group of ideas.
Now you have a topic sentence or possibly a thesis statement. Clustering Clustering is also called mind mapping or idea looping in academic writing.
It is a strategy that allows you to explore the relationships between ideas. Put the subject in the center of a page. Circle or underline it.
As you think of other ideas, link the new ideas to the central circle with lines. As you think of ideas that relate to the new ideas, add to those in the same way.
The result will look like a web on your page. Locate clusters of interest to you, and use the terms you attached to the key ideas as departure points for your paper. Clustering is especially useful in determining the relationship between ideas.
You will be able to distinguish how the ideas fit together, especially where there is an abundance of ideas.
Clustering your ideas lets you see them visually in a different way, so that you can more readily understand possible directions your paper may take. Freewriting Free-writing is a process of generating a lot of information by writing non-stop. It allows you to focus on a specific topic, but forces you to write so quickly that you are unable to edit any of your ideas.
Free-write on the assignment or general topic for several minutes non-stop. Force yourself to continue writing even if nothing specific comes to mind. This free-writing will include many ideas; at this point, generating ideas is what is important, not the grammar or the spelling.
After you've finished free-writing, look back over what you have written and highlight the most prominent and interesting ideas; then you can begin all over again, with a tighter focus.
You will narrow your topic and, in the process, you will generate several relevant points about the topic. Looping Looping is a free-writing technique that allows you to increasingly focus your ideas in trying to discover a writing topic.
You loop one minute free-writing after another, so you have a sequence of free-writings, each more specific than the other.
The same rules that apply to free-writing apply to looping: Free-write on an assignment for minutes. Then, read through your free-writing, looking for interesting topics, ideas, phrases, or sentences.
Circle those you find interesting. A variation on looping is to have a classmate circle ideas in your free-writing that interests him or her. Then free-write again for minutes on one of the circled topics. You should end up with a more specific free-writing about a particular topic.
Loop your free-writing again, circling another interesting topic, idea, phrase, or sentence. When you have finished four or five rounds of looping, you will begin to have specific information that indicates what you are thinking about a particular topic.
You may even have the basis for a tentative thesis or an improved idea for an approach to your assignment when you have finished.
The Journalists' Questions Journalists traditionally ask six questions when they are writing assignments, 5 W's and 1 H:It didn't surprise me when I heard of research that looping has been shown to add six weeks of instruction to kids’ learning, and that looping to a third year can add a full academic year of growth.
Myths about Writing Writers are born, not made. “Good” writers write fast. “Good” writers rarely struggle.
“Good” writers get it right the first time. The longer the words, the better they are. (Clouse, ). Unit One An Approach to Academic Writing As graduate students, you face a variety of writing tasks throughout your chosen degree programs.
Naturally, these tasks will vary from one degree program to another. They are, however, similar in two respects. First, the. Feb 26, · Looping: A Focused Approach to Brainstorming Adapted from a PSU Writing Center handout by Mariah Bennett-Gillard If you don’t have time to waste and have to come up with an idea on a specific topic for a writing assignment, try looping.
The Academic Writer is a brief guide that prepares students for any college writing situation through a solid foundation in rhetorical concepts.
By framing the reading and composing processes in terms of the rhetorical situation, Lisa Ede gives students the tools they need to make effective choices. This study was designed to examine the effects of looping, a practice whereby teachers and students stay together for more than one year, on perceived values and academic achievement in language arts at a Fresno Unified School District elementary school in Fresno, CA.