An essay may have an enticing introduction that draws in the reader, contain fascinating facts and persuasive details.
Improved adolescent and adult literacy programs require the development of measures and comprehensive systems of assessment that 1 include measures of language and literacy skills related to a range of literacy forms and tasks, domain knowledge, cognitive abilities, and valued functional as well as psychological outcomes; 2 include measures for differentiated placement and instruction, diagnosis, formative assessment, and accountability that are all aligned to work toward common learning goals; and 3 produce information at learner, classroom, and program levels that is useful to learners, instructors, program administrators, and policy makers.
Three types of assessment are needed: The different forms of measurement serve different purposes. Diagnostic assessment gives detailed information to instructors about which skill components the learner possesses and which need to be developed.
Formative assessment provides the information needed to improve instruction by focusing attention on skills that need to be improved as instruction progresses. Accountability assessment provides funders and the public with a sense of how well the program and systems that serve adult literacy learners are working.
Instructors also need training in how to use diagnostic assessments to guide instructional choices and formative assessments to improve instruction. The validity of measures for both practice and research needs attention with respect to 1 the suitability of the measures for adults, 2 comprehensive coverage of the multiple dimensions of component skills especially Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Improving Adult Literacy Instruction: Options for Practice and Research.
The National Academies Press.
The use of grade level equivalents to measure skill levels and gains needs to be rethought because adults begin instruction with widely varied skills that do not fit neatly into grade level categories. In both research and practice, better measurement tools are especially needed to more adequately assess all aspects of reading comprehension.
The measures that are available and that have been used in the few intervention studies focus on a narrow range of skill e.
To evaluate effective instructional practices, measures used in research must have sufficient breadth and complexity to measure the important dimensions of literacy and language. Use of only a single composite score on a standardized assessment, by contrast, or measurement of a narrow skill set should be avoided to maximize understanding and return on investment, especially in large-scale effectiveness research.
There is a need to conceptualize and develop multidimensional measures in tandem with the development and testing of integrated reading comprehension models and comprehensive approaches to instruction. In doing this work, attention is needed to construct validity. Across studies, the same measures have been used to assess different constructs, and different measures have been used to assess the same constructs, indicating a need to systematically clarify both the constructs that are important to assess and valid ways to define and measure them.
The same comprehensive and multidimensional approaches are needed for research and assessment of writing and writing development. Moreover, because writing assessment is often costly and time-consuming, considerable attention needs to be devoted to developing valid automatic computerized scoring systems that will prove useful to teachers and learners alike.
Studies must measure outcomes of literacy instruction that have external validity, meaning that they measure component skills needed to perform valued literacy tasks for education, work, and other life goals.
Measurements of growth in the ability to use and compose texts for these purposes are needed for both print and digital text forms. There are many reasons why people think that universal literacy is important, so studies need to measure the extent to which all the goals of interest are realized.
Although more needs to be known about how to reliably assess them, such noncognitive outcomes contribute to a complete view of the effectiveness of adult literacy instruction. Despite a long history of psychological and sociocultural research on the constructs of motivation, engagement, and persistence, the best ways to measure the related constructs still need to be determined or developed for use in studies with the target population.
Technologies for learning can help to resolve problems facing adult learners caused by time and space constraints. Technology can assist with multiple aspects of learning and assessment that include diagnosis, feedback, scaffolding, embedded practice with skills in meaningful tasks, tracking of learner progress, and accommodations to create more effective and efficient instruction.
Given the costs of human labor, technology also may offer a more cost-effective means of achieving the extended levels of practice needed to gain reading and writing facility. Technologies for learning, including social networking tools, have advanced to the point that literacy instruction and practice no longer need to be offered only in the traditional classroom.
Technology has the potential to scaffold literate activity to make learning more efficient. Technology also can assist with assessment, especially by leveraging recent model tracing, Bayesian network, and natural language processing advances.
Technology can be used for placement, feedback, and tracking of learner progress for more effective and efficient instruction. Writing is improved by intelligent tutoring systems and automated scoring systems that diagnose and give feedback on language and discourse deficits at multiple levels.
Technology also can assist with accommodation, and in particular text-to-speech and speech-to-text technologies can help to support both reading and writing development. Many adult learners can benefit from technology that can guide, coach, or scaffold engagement with literacy tasks.
For example, electronic texts might include software routines that monitor how long various pieces of a text are engaged and use that information to provide prompts that encourage persistence in deep processing.
Pop-up questions can allow students to self-assess the depth of their engagement. Technology tools exist or could be developed to link the instruction and practice of specific literacy skills to particular tasks and purposes designed Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Developing the literacy skills for using collaborative communication technologies can be motivating as well as valuable, because they help learners maintain connections with important people in their social world and develop the pragmatic understandings needed to comprehend and compose texts for effective communication.
Although some adults may be somewhat familiar with these tools, the rich use of collaborative technologies will require training, not only for students but also for their instructors, and they may enhance persistence in literacy programs that use them.
The human resource cost of education, as well as other cultural opportunities, tends to rise faster than the general cost of living. This means that deeper levels of instructional support by human teachers may be less feasible to support publicly as time passes. Technology can leverage human teaching, especially to provide more and deeper opportunities to engage texts.
In addition, given the temporal barriers many adult learners face to increase literacy opportunity, technology can make added literacy engagement opportunities more accessible and more portable.Writing the conclusion for your informative essay is just as important as the introduction.
The conclusion is the last thing your reader will read about your topic, which is why it needs to pack a powerful punch to make it relevant and memorable.
Literacy Education Online: Strategies for Writing a Conclusion; Barroso, Kristina. "How to. This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate drafts, and suggest what to avoid. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” Literacy Education Online, St.
Cloud State University. 18 May LEO: Literacy Education Online: Strategies for Writing a Conclusion About the Author Crossover talent Debbie McClure has been writing marketing, training and press material for businesses since Writing a conclusion is an important part of thesis dissertation writing.
Ideally, a good conclusion should be able to provide a good picture of what the thesis is about. The conclusion should also give a clear impression that the purpose of the thesis has been achieved. The conclusion of a research reaffirms the thesis statement, [ ].
LEO: Literacy Education Online LEO provides online handouts about a variety of writing topics. Although LEO is affiliated with the Write Place (the writing center at St.
Cloud State University), LEO does not offer online tutoring, answer questions about grammar or punctuation, or give feedback about your writing or . A Brief Guide to Writing an Effective EE Conclusion The conclusion of any research paper can be the most difficult section to write for a variety of reasons: fatigue, repetition, content.